The stage setting of a drama is inseparable from light. Different light sources, luminosity, light level, light quality, light ratio, light color and light type can convey different visual information. The design of modern stage set is inseparable from the ingenious use of lighting.
The most benefit from the development of science and technology is stage lighting. From candles to oil lamps, from gas lamps to electric lamps, from various spotlights to computer lights and laser lights, great changes have taken place in their light source, brightness, color restoration, change speed and operation. Using the scientific research achievements of modern optics, mechanics, chemistry and electronics, dance designers have used the technologies of slide, projection, television and film on the stage, created the technologies of light curtain, light wall and light column, gave full play to the ever-changing characteristics of light, and brought infinite space for psychological modeling to the drama with four-dimensional space and time. With the further development of science and technology in the 21st century, the performance of light will continue to improve. On the stage of classical drama, light has entered the space of light description and thinking from simple lighting, and has become an important language description means of stage performance in the future. Lighting has become the protagonist of scene communication, which has gradually become a reality.
Obviously, it is very necessary to master the basic nature and function of stage lighting.
In order to master the basic technology of stage lighting, we must first understand the basic properties of lighting. The basic nature of stage lighting refers to the basic characteristics and forms of set lighting. They include different light sources, luminosity, light level, light quality, light ratio, light color and light type, etc.
Any scene material that can emit light is called a scene light source. Different scene light sources have different characteristics and forms. There are two types of scene light sources on the stage: one is the original light source, such as lamps, flames and so on. The other is reflective light source, such as visible mirror light source, props light source, set light source, characters and shiny accessories light source, etc.
Setting luminosity is the most basic element of setting light. It is the general term of the luminous intensity of the scene light source and the brightness of the light on the object surface. The setting luminosity on the stage is related to the use of stage lamps: the luminosity is large, and the required lamps are bright and many; The luminosity is small, and the required lamps are dark and few. In addition, the luminosity of the scene on the stage also indirectly affects the depth of field and the clarity or fuzziness of moving objects. The scene light level refers to the illumination direction of the scene light source and the position of the scene light source relative to the original stage light source. On the stage, the setting light level often determines the position of the light and shadow of the subject; At the same time, it also affects the overall shape and texture of stage objects. Such as concealment, emergence, deformation or discoloration, etc. Stage objects can vary, and the light level can also vary, but the set light level is relatively fixed relative to the whole space of the stage. The light source positions on the stage are divided into forward light (also known as surface light), side light, back light, top light, foot light, scattered modeling light and so on.
Setting light quality refers to the soft and hard characteristics of stage light. Soft light is the light ratio phenomenon that the shadow produced by the light shining on the stage object is soft and the light is not bright. For example, the gauze curtain has a gradual contour and low contrast. Hard light means that the shadow produced by light is clear and thick, such as tables and chairs, with bright outline and high light contrast. Hard light has obvious directivity, which makes the illuminated object produce a sharp contrast between light and shade. Hard light helps to express the texture of stage objects. At the same time, hard light often gives people a feeling of fortitude and coldness. Soft light has no obvious sense of direction. It is more suitable to reflect the natural shape and color difference of objects. Soft light is not good at expressing the unique hard texture of stage objects. Light is often faster than unknown, but soft light often gives people a feeling of softness and delicacy, which is more suitable for creating a romantic and gentle stage atmosphere. The set light ratio refers to the contrast between the light intensity of the bright part and the dark part of the stage object surface. When the light ratio is large, the contrast between the bright part and the dark part of the object is large; On the contrary, the contrast between the bright part and the dark part is small. In general, the intensity of the main light and auxiliary light on the stage determines the setting light ratio of the stage object. The stage setting light ratio is large and the object has a strong three-dimensional sense. The stage setting light ratio is small and the three-dimensional sense of objects is weak.
The color of setting light refers to the color of light, usually also refers to the color temperature of light. However, the stage generally refers to the use of stage lights with color, also known as color light, with red, blue, white and other lighting effects. If color lights are used on the stage, light color balance is very important. Light color balance is to coordinate the contrast, strength and so on. When adjusting the light source on the stage, we must choose the organic coordination of light color temperature and tone, otherwise it will not only break the natural color difference of the stage setting, but also may be biased and disordered, so as to make the actors have psychological reactions such as uneasiness and irritability to the setting light.
Scenery light shape often refers to the performance form after the combination of scenery and scenery. There are generally five kinds of setting lights on the stage: ① main light, ② auxiliary light, ③ outline light, ④ background light and ⑤ decorative light.
The setting light type refers to the shape of the light itself. The change of light type in stage setting is often different due to different lamps and auxiliary color lights. Lighting modeling can be displayed in the sky, screen and space, or formed on the ground. The common set light types include snowflakes, lightning, sun, moon, stars, flames and so on. On the modern stage, the technology of slide, projection, television and film has created more stage lighting shapes such as light curtain, light wall and light column.